19th century Cappadocian houses were built on hill sides, either carved out of the rock or built from large cut stones. Volcanic stone is the only architectural material in the region used for building as it is soft when extracted and can therefore easily be cut and shaped. It hardens on contact with air to form a very resistant material. The abundance of stone in the area, and the ease of use have created a building technique unique to the area.
Wood is used for courtyard gates and the houses' doors. Rosette and ivy patterns are used as decorations above the arched doors.
Windows are grouped in twos and threes and stylised plant patterns are also used, either two panes opening separately or guillotine style.
In both types of house there are numerous living rooms, a kitchen, cellar, store room, an oven (tandir), wine vat etc. Niches found in the guest rooms are decorated with paintings of vases full of flowers under silk, tasseled curtains, scenes from nature or women filling, or carrying water vessels. These scenes are painted on plaster.
The most interesting examples of local architecture belong to the end of the 19th beginning of the 20th centuries. Examples can be found all over the region, but particularly in Avanos, Ortahisar, Mustafapaşa, Uchisar, Goreme, Urgup, in Guzeloz and nearby Baskoy in the province of Kayseri and Guzelyurt near the region of Ihlara.